καί

καί, Conj., copulative, joining words and sentences,
A and; also Adv., even, also, just, freq. expressing emphatic assertion or assent, corresponding as positive to the negative οὐ ([etym.] μή) or οὐδέ ([etym.] μηδέ).
A copulative, and,
I joining words or sentences to those preceding,

ἦ, καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ' ὀφρύσινεῦσε Κρονίων Il.1.528

, etc.: repeated with two or more Nouns,

αἱ δὲ ἔλαφοι κ. δορκάδες κ. οἱ ἄγριοι οἶες κ. οἱ ὄνοι οἱ ἄγριοι X.Cyr.1.4.7

; joining only the last pair, Cleom.2.1
(p.168.5 Z.), Phlp.in APr.239.30, etc., v. l. in Arist.Po.1451a20; ὁ ὄχλος πλείων κ. πλείων ἐπέρρει more and more, X.Cyr.7.5.39; to add epithets after

πολύς, πολλὰ κ. ἐσθλά Il.9.330

;

πολλὰ κ. μεγάλα D.28.1

, etc.
2 to addalimiting or defining expression, πρὸς μακρὸν ὄρος κ. Κύνθιον ὄχθον to the mountain and specially to . . , h.Ap. 17, cf. A.Ag. 63 (anap.), S.Tr.1277 (anap.) (sts. in reverse order,

πρὸς δῶμα Διὸς κ. μακρὸν Ὄλυμπον Il.5.398

); to add by way of climax, θεῶν . . κ. Ποσειδῶνος all the gods, and above all . . , A.Pers.750, etc.;

ἐχθροὶ κ. ἔχθιστοι Th.7.68

;

τινὲς κ. συχνοί Pl.Grg.455c

; freq. ἄλλοι τε καί . . , ἄλλως τε καί . . , v. ἄλλος 11.6,

ἄλλως 1.3

; ὀλίγου τινὸς ἄξια κ. οὐδενός little or nothing, Id.Ap.23a: joined with the demonstr. Pron. οὗτος (q. v.),

εἶναι . . δούλοισι, κ. τούτοισι ὡς δρηπέτῃσι Hdt.6.11

, cf. 1.147; κ. ταῦτα and this too . . ,

γελᾶν ἀναπείθειν, κ. ταῦθ' οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτι X.Cyr.2.2.16

, etc.
II at the beginning of a sentence,
1 in appeals or requests,

καί μοι δὸς τὴν Χεῖρα Il.23.75

; καί μοι λέγε . . , καί μοι ἀπόκριναι . . , Pl.Euthphr.3a, Grg.462b; freq. in Oratt., καί μοι λέγε . . τὸ ψήφισμα, καί μοι ἀνάγνωθι . . , D.18.105
, Lys.14.8, etc.
2 in questions, to introduce an objection or express surprise, κ. τίς τόδ' ἐξίκοιτ' ἂν ἀγγέλων τάχος; A.Ag.280; κ. πῶς . . ; pray how . .? E. Ph.1348; κ. δὴ τί . . ; but then what . .? Id.Hel.101; κ. ποῖον . . ; S.Aj. 462; κ. τίς εἶδε πώποτε βοῦς κριβανίτας; Ar.Ach.86; κἄπειτ' ἔκανες; E.Med.1398 (anap.); κ. τίς πώποτε Χαριζόμενος ἑτέρῳ τοῦτο εἰργάσατο; Antipho 5.57, cf. Is.1.20, Isoc.12.23, Pl. Tht.163d,al.
3 = καίτοι, and yet, Ar.Eq.1245, E.HF509.
4 at the beginning of a speech, Lys.Fr.36a.
III after words implying sameness or like ness, as, γνώμῃσι ἐχρέωντο ὁμοίῃσι κ. σύ they had the same opinion as you, Hdt.7.50, cf. 84; ἴσον or ἴσα κ. . . , S.OT611, E.El.994; ἐν ἴσῳ (sc. ἐστὶ)

κ. εἰ . . Th.2.60

, etc.
2 after words implying comparison or opposition,

αἱ δαπάναι οὐχ ὁμοίως κ. πρίν Id.7.28

;

πᾶν τοὐναντίον ἔχει νῦν τε κ. ὅτε . . Pl.Lg.967a

.
3 to express simultaneity,

ἦν ἦμαρ δεύτερον . . , κἀγὼ κατηγόμην S.Ph.355

, cf. Th.1.50
; παρέρχονταί τε μέσαι νύκτες κ. ψύχεται [τὸ ὕδωρ] Hdt.4.181, cf. 3.108; [οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι]

οὐκ ἔφθασαν τὴν ἀρχὴν κατασχόντες κ. Θηβαίοις εὐθὺς ἐπεβούλευσαν Isoc.8.98

.
IV joining an affirm. clause with a neg.,

ἀλλ' ὥς τι δράσων εἷρπε κοὐ θανούμενος S.Tr.160

, etc.
V καί . . , καί . . correlative, not only . . , but also . . , κ. ἀεὶ κ. νῦν, κ. τότε κ. νῦν, Pl.Grg.523a, Phlb.60b;

κ. κατὰ γῆν κ. κατὰ θάλατταν X.An.1.1.7

.
VI by anacoluthon, ὣς φαμένη κ. κερδοσύνῃ ἡγήσατ' Ἀθήνη, for ὣς ἔφη κ. . . , Il.22.247; ἔρχεται δὲ αὐτή τε . . κ. τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα, for κ. ὁ υἱός, X.Cyr.1.3.1;

ἄλλας τε κατηγεόμενοί σφι ὁδούς, κ. τέλος ἐγίνοντο Hdt.9.104

;

τοιοῦτος ὤν, κᾆτ' ἀνὴρ ἔδοξεν εἶναι Ar.Eq.392

, cf. Nu.624.
B even, also, just,
1 τάχα κεν κ. ἀναίτιον αἰτιόῳτο even the innocent, Il.11.654, cf. 4.161, etc.; δόμεναι κ. μεῖζον ἄεθλον an even greater prize, 23.551, cf. 10.556, 5.362: with numerals, κ. πέντε full five, 23.833;

γενομένης κ. δὶς ἐκκλησίας Th.1.44

, cf. Hdt.2.44,60, 68, al. (but ἐτῶν δύο κ. τριῶν two or three, Th.1.82, cf. X.Eq.4.4).
2 also, κ. ἐγώ I also, Il.4.40; κ. αὐτοί they also, X.An.3.4.44, etc.; Ἀγίας καὶ Σωκράτης κ. τούτω ἀπεθανέτην likewise died, ib. 2.6.30; in adding surnames, etc.,

Ὦχος ὁ κ. Δαρειαῖος Ctes.Fr.29.49

(sed Photii est): Ptol. Papyri have nom. ὃς κ., gen. τοῦ κ. etc.,

Πανίσκος ὃς κ. Πετεμῖνις PLond.2.219

(b) 2 (ii B.C.); dat. τῷ κ. ib.(a) v2, PRein.26.5 (ii B. C.); nom. ὁ κ. first in PTeb.110.1 (i B. C.), freq. later, BGU22.25 (ii A. D.), etc.;

Ἰούδας ὁ κ. Μακκαβαῖος J.AJ12.6.4

;

Σαῦλος ὁ κ. Παῦλος Act.Ap.13.9

: with

ἄλλος, λαβέτω δὲ κ. ἄλλος Od.21.152

; εἴπερ τι κ. ἄλλο, ὥς τις κ. ἄλλος, X.Mem.3.6.2, An.1.3.15, cf. Pl. Phd.59a, Ar.Nu.356: freq. in antithetic phrases, οὐ μόνον . . , ἀλλὰ καὶ . . , not only . . , but also . . , v. μόνος; οὐδὲν μᾶλλον . . ἢ οὐ καὶ . . Hdt.5.94, al.
b freq. used both in the anteced. and relat. clause, where we put also in the anteced. only,

εἰ μὲν κ. σὺ εἶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὧνπερ κ. ἐγώ Pl.Grg.458a

, cf. Il.6.476
, X.An.2.1.21.
3 freq. in apodosi, after temporal Conjs.,

ἀλλ' ὅτε δή ῥα . . , κ. τότε δή . . Il.1.494

, cf. 8.69, Od. 14.112
; also after εἰ, Il.5.897: in Prose,

ὡς δὲ ἔδοξεν, κ. ἐχώρουν Th.2.93

: as a Hebraism,

κ. ἐγένετο . . κ. . . LXX Ge.24.30

, al., Ev.Luc.1.59, etc.
4 with Advs., to give emphasis,

κ. κάρτα Hdt.6.125

; κ. λίην full surely,
Il.19.408, Od.1.46;

κ. μᾶλλον Il.8.470

, cf. E.Heracl.386; κ. πάλαι, κ. πάνυ, S.OC1252, Pl. Chrm.154e; κ. μάλα, κ. σφόδρα, in answers, Ar.Nu.1326, Pl.La. 191e.
5 with words expressing a minimum, even so much as, were it but, just,

ἱέμενος κ. καπνὸν ἀποθρῴσκοντα νοῆσαι Od.1.58

; οἷς

ἡδὺ κ. λέγειν Ar.Nu.528

; τίς δὲ κ. προσβλέψεται; who will so much as look at you? E.IA1192, cf. Ar.Ra.614, Pl.Ap.28b, 35b.
6 just, τοῦτ' αὐτὸ κ. νοσοῦμεν 'tis just that that ails me, E.Andr.906, cf. Ba.616, S.Tr.490, Ar.Pax892, Ra.73, Pl.Grg.456a, Tht.166d: freq. with a relat.,

τὸ κ. κλαίουσα τέτηκα Il.3.176

;

διὸ δὴ καὶ . . Th.1.128

, etc.: also in interrogations (usu. to be rendered by emphasis in intonation), ποίου Χρόνου δὲ καὶ πεπόρθηται πόλις; and how long ago was the city sacked? A.Ag.278; ποῦ καί σφε θάπτει; where is he burying her? E.Alc.834, cf. S.Aj.1290, al., X.An.5.8.2, Ar.Pax1289, Pl. Euthphr.6b, D.4.46, etc.
7 even, just, implying assent, ἔπειτά με κ. λίποι αἰών thereafter let life e'en leave me, Il.5.685, cf. 17.647, 21.274, Od.7.224.
8 κ. εἰ even if, of a whole condition represented as an extreme case, opp. εἰ κ. although, notwithstanding that, of a condition represented as immaterial even if fulfilled, cf. Il.4.347, 5.351, Od.13.292, 16.98 with Il.5.410, Od.6.312, 8.139, etc.; εἰ κ. ἠπιστάμην if I had been able, Pl.Phd.108d, cf. Lg.663d. (This remark does not apply to cases where εἰ and καί each exert their force separtely, as

εἴ περ ἀδειής τ' ἐστί, καὶ εἰ . .

and if . .

Il.7.117

, cf. Hdt.5.78, etc.)
9 before a Participle, to represent either καὶ εἰ . . , or εἰ καί . . , although, albeit, Ἕκτορα κ. μεμαῶτα μάχης σχήσεσθαι ὀΐω, for ἢν κ. μεμάῃ, how much soever he rage, although he rage, Il.9.655; τί σὺ ταῦτα, κ. ἐσθλὸς ἐών, ἀγορεύεις; (for εἰ κ. ἐσθλὸς εἶ) 16.627, cf. 13.787, Od.2.343, etc.;

κ. τύραννος ὢν ὅμως S.OC851

.
C Position: καί and, is by Poets sts. put after another word, ἔγνωκα, τοῖσδε κοὐδὲν ἀντειπεῖν ἔχω, for

καὶ τοῖσδε οὐδέν A.Pr.51

, cf. Euph.51.7, etc.
2 καί also, sts. goes between a Prep. and its case,

ἐν κ. θαλάσσᾳ Pi.O.2.28

.
3 very seldom at the end of a verse, S.Ph.312, Ar.V.1193.
D crasis: with [pron. full] , as κἄν, κἀγαθοί, etc.; with ε, as κἀγώ, κἄπειτα, etc., [dialect] Dor. κἠγώ, κἤπειτα, etc.; with η, as Χἠ, Χἠμέρη, Χἠμεῖς, etc.; with [pron. full] in Χἰκετεύετε, Χἰλαρή; with ο, as Χὠ, Χὤστις, etc.; with υ in Χὐμεῖς, Χὐποχείριον, etc.; with ω in the pron. ᾧ, Χᾦ; with αι, as κᾀσχρῶν; with αυ, as καὐτός; with ει, as κεἰ, κεἰς (but also κἀς) , κᾆτα; with εὐ-, as κεὐγένεια, κεὐσταλής; with οι in Χοἰ (

Χᾠ EM816.34

); with ου in Χοὖτος, κοὐ, κοὐδέ, and the like .

Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό). 2014.

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